Okay. I've done more testing, and I think you're right. I was able to fix all of the same issues with -opengl4, so I'm willing to bet that -vulkan genuinely isn't doing anything but causing TU to default to opengl3, which would explain the condo water suddenly working again. My bad.
However, I still believe that setting Detail Quality to Ultra and Effects Quality to High fixes the bloom issues in Midori and Summit, as well as the transparency issues with most other effects. Bad news: It seems to be quite literially random if it works or not. About 50% of the time, I'd follow my own instructions and end up with the same bloom issues, and about 50% of the time, it'd work just as it did before. I'm seriously confused.
I took videos to show what I mean. In both these videos, I am using the exact same launch options (-opengl4), settings, and I take the exact same actions before going directly into Midori. The first time I tried it, however, the bloom was present. The second time, it was not. It really does seem to be about 50/50 odds on launch.
Here's the video in which it didn't work.
Take note of the actions I take in the main menu, and how, at the end of the level, the "FINISH" in the goal is rapidly switching between different colors and is not animating correctly.
I took this video, in which it did work, literially seconds after the first video. I didn't change any settings, and I took the exact same actions.
And it worked! Loading into Midori works great; All of the lighting is correct, and the waterfall in the background even looks right, whereas in the first video, the transparency on the textures didn't look right. The "FINISH" marker at the end stays one consistent color and animates correctly.
So there is an element of randomness to it, and you are correct; I was mistaken, and -vulkan does nothing. I really have no idea where to go from here, as I have no idea what random element is causing the fix to sometimes work and sometimes not, or if there's something that can be done to make it work consistently.